Blumberg, W.E., Eisinger, J., Lamola, A.A. and Zuckerman, D.M.:
The Hematofluorometer (1977) Clin. Chem., Vol. 23, No. 2, 270-274

Iron Deficiency

Kilbride, J., RM, MSc, PhD, Baker, T.G., DSc, FRCPath, FRSE, Parapia, L.A., FRCP, FRCPE, FRCPAth, Khoury, S.A., M.D., PhD, Iron Status, Serum Folate and B12 Values in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Report From a Study in Jordan, Ann Saudi Med 2000; 20 (5-6): 371-376.

Matzkies, F., M.D., Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Dreyfuss, M.L., Stoltzfus RJ, Shrestha JB, Pradhan EK, LeClerq S, Khatry SK, Shrestha SR, Katz J, Albonico M, West KP Jr: Hookworms, malaria and vitamin A deficiency contribute to anemia and iron deficiency among pregnant women in the plains of Nepal. J Nutr 2000,1999.

Fishman S.M., Christian P, West KP Jr: The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutrition 2000,1999.

Iyer JK, Shankar AH, Stoltzfus RJ, the TAPP Research Team, Sullivan DJ Jr: Protection from malaria by anemia-associated elevations in erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX. JCI, 1999.

Montresor A, Albonico M, Khalfan N, Stoltzfus RJ, Tielsch JM, Chwaya HM, Savioli L: Field trial of a haemoglobin colour scale: an effective tool to detect anaemia in preschool children. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2000;5:129-135,1999.

OBrien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Yang DX, Abrams SA: Influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplements on supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell incorporation, and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:509-515, 1999

Shankar AH, Fishman S, Goodman S, Stoltzfus RJ: Iron supplementation and morbidity due to plasmodium falciparum: a systemic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. BMJ, 1999.

Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Savioli L, Tielsch JM: Malaria, hookworms, and recent fever are related to anemia and iron status indicators in Zanzibari children 0-5 years and these relations change with age. J Nutr 2000 (in press), 1999.

Stoltzfus RJ, Edward-Raj A, Dreyfuss ML, Albonico M, Montresor A, Thapa MD, West KP Jr, Chwaya HM, Savioli L, Tielsch J: Clinical pallor is useful to detect severe anemia in populations where anemia is prevalent and severe. J Nutr 1999;129:1675-1681, 1999.

Stoltzfus RJ, Kvalsvig JD, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM, Savioli L, Pollitt E: Effects of iron supplementation and anthelminthic treatment on motor and language development of Zanzibari preschool children. Lancet 2000, 1999.

Albonico M, Stoltzfus RJ, Cancrini G, Tielsch JM, Chwaya HM, Ercole E, Savioli L. Epidemiologic evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, A. duodenale or N. americanus, on iron status of children. Internat J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 530-537, 1998.

OBrien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Yang DX, Abrams SA. The influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplement on absorption of supplemental iron, red blood cell incorporation and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 1999.

Christian P. Antenatal iron supplementation as a child survival strategy. Letter to the editor, Am J Clin Nutr 1998, 1998.

Stoltzfus RJ, Albonico M, Chwaya HN, Tielsch, JM, Schulze KJ, Savioli L. Impact of the Zanzibar school-based deworming program on iron status of children. Am J Clin Nutr, 19998

Stoltzfus RJ, Chakraborty J, Rice A, de la Briere B, de Francisco A. (1998) Effectiveness of an iron supplementation program to pregnant and post-partum women in rural Bangladesh: a preliminary evaluation. Food Nutr Bull;19(3):197-204, 1998.

Zhou LM, Yang W-W, Hua J-Z, Deng C-Q, Tao X, Stoltzfus RJ. Relation of hemoglobin measured at different times in pregnancy to preterm birth and low birth weight in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol, 1998

Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Albonico M, Schulze K, Savioli L, Tielsch J. Serum ferritin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin are valid indicators of iron status of school children in a malaria-holoendemic population. J Nutr 1997;127:293-298, 1998
Stoltzfus RJ. Rethinking anaemia surveillance. Lancet 1997; 349:1764-1766, 1997.

Stoltzfus RJ, Dreyfuss ML, Jorgensen T, Chwaya HM, Albonico M. Hookworm control as a strategy to prevent iron deficiency. Nutr Rev 1997;55:223-232, 1997

Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Tielsch JM, Schulze KJ, Albonico M, Savioli L. Epidemiology of iron deficiency anemia in Zanzibari school children: the importance of hookworms. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:153-159, 1997.

Stoltzfus RJ, Albonico M, Chwaya HM, et al. Hemoquant determination of hookworm-related blood loss and its role in iron deficiency in African children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 1996;55:399-404, 1996.

Hastka, J., Lasserre, J.J., Schwarzbeck, A., Strauch, M. and Hehlmann, R.:Washing Erythrocytes to Remove Interferents in Measurements of Zinc Protoporphyrin by Front-Face Hematofluorometry. Clin. Chem. 38/11, 2184-2189, 1992.

Labbe, Robert F.: Clinical Utility of Zinc Protoporphyrin Clin. Chem. 38/11, 2167-2168, 1992.
State Medicaid Manual. Part 5 – Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT). Department of Health and Human Services, Health Care Financing Administration. September, 1992.

Hastka, J., Lasserre, J.J., Strauch, M., Hehlmann, R.: Zinc Protoporphyrin in the Staging of Hodgkin’s Disease. Onkologie, Abstracts, Supplement 2, October, 1991.

Lozoff, B., M.D., Jimenez, E., M.D., and Wolf, A.W.: Long-Term Developmental Outcome of Infants with Iron Deficiency. New England Jnl. of Med., Vol. 325, No. 10, pp. 687-694, Sept. 1991.

Schifman, R.B., Thomasson, James and Evers, James.: Red Blood Cell Zinc Protoporphyrin in Pregnancy. Amer. Jnl. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 157, No. 2, 304-307, August, 1987.

Trundle, Diana S., Habel, David and Bradley, Howard.: Erythrocyte ZnPP in Diagnosing Iron Depletion. Laboratory Management, pp. 53-59, July, 1985.
Yip, Ray, M.D. and Dallman, Peter, R., M.D.: Developmental Changes in Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin: Roles of Iron Deficiency and Lead Toxicity. Jnl. of Pediatrics, Vol. 104, No. 5 , May, 1984.

Schifman, R.B., et al.: Reticulocytopenic, Coombs Positive Anemia Induced by Procainamide. Am. J. Clin. Path., 80:66-68, 1983.

Duncan, B., Schifman, R.B., Corrigan, J.J., and Schaefer, C.: Serum Ferritin in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants from Birth to 6 Months: Correlation with Red Cell ZP and Hemoglobin. Pediatric Research, 17(4): 186, 1983.

Schifman, R.B., et al.: Hemoglobin Measurement in Capillary Blood with the Hematofluorometer. Clin. Chem. 29:6, 1284, 1983.

Schifman, R.B.: Red Cell ZP: An alternative to Serum Ferritin Determinations for Assessing Iron Depletion. Clin. Chem., 28(7) : 1626, 1982.

Schifman, R.B., et al.: RBC Zinc Protoporphyrin to Screen Blood Donors for Iron Deficiency Anemia. JAMA, 248(16): 2012-2013, 1982.

Cook, James D.: Clinical Evaluation of Iron Deficiency. Seminars in Hematology, Vol. 19, No. 1, January, 1982.

Haddy, T.B., M.D., Castro, O., M.D.: Overt Iron Deficiency in Sickle Cell Disease. Arch. Intern. Med., Vol. 142, September, 1982.

Vichinsky, E., Kleman, K., Embury, S. and Lubin, B.: The Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Sickle Cell Disease. Blood, Vol. 58, No. 5, November, 1981.

Schifman, R.B., et al.: Predicting Future Iron Deficiency Anemia in Blood Donors. ransfusion, 21(5):633-4, 1981 (abstract).

Schifman, R.B., et al.: Measurement of Near-Normal Concentrations of Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin with the Hematofluorometer: Influence of Plasma on “Front Surface Illumination”. Assay, Clin. Chem., 27(1): 153-156, 1981.

Hershko, C., et al.: Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Rural Population of Children. Relative Usefulness of Serum Ferritin, Red Cell Protoporphyrin, Red Cell Indices, and Transferrin Saturation Determinations. American Jnl. of Clinical Nutrition, 34: pp. 1600-1610, August, 1981.

Schifman, R.B., et al.: Value of Serum Ferritin Percent Iron Saturation and Red Cell Zinc Protoporphyrin Measurements in Evolving Iron Deficiency Anemia. Clin. Chem., 27(6):113, 1981 (abstract).

Thomas, W.J., Koening, H.M., Lightsey, Jr., A.L. and Green, R.: Free Erythrocyte Porphyrin: Hemoglobin Ratios, Serum Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation Levels during Treatment of Infants with Iron Deficiency Anemia. Blood, Vol. 49, No. 3, March, 1977.

Piomelli, S., Brickman, A., Carlos, E.: Rapid Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency by Measurement of Free Erythrocyte Porphyrins and Hemoglobin: The FEP/Hemoglobin Ratio. Pediatrics, Vol. 57, No. 1, January, 1976.

Koenig, H.M..: Classification of Microcytic Anemia by Fluorometric Analysis of Free Erythrocyte Porphyrins (FEP). Annals of Clinical Research, Vol. 8, Suppl. 17, 1976.

Koenig, H.M., Lightsey, A.L., Jr., Schanberger, J.E.: The Micromeasurement of Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin as a Means of Differentiating Alpha Thalassemia Trait from Iron Deficiency Anemia. Jnl. of Pediatrics, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 539-541, April, 1975.

Stockman, J.A., III, Weiner, L.S., Simon, G.E., Stuart, M.J., and Oski, F. A.: The Measurement of Free Erythrocyte Porphyrin (FEP) as a Simple Means of Distinguishing Iron Deficiency from Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Subjects with Microcytosis. Jnl. of Lab. and Clin. Medicine, Vol. 85, No.1, pp. 113-119, January 1975.


Dr. Robert Lynn.: The Utility of Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) as a Measure of Iron Stores in Hemodialysis Patients Treated with Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (EPO). Baumritter Kidney Center, Private Communication,Sept. 1992.

Finger, M., Lynn, R.I.: The Utility of Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation in the Assessment of Iron Stores in Hemodialysis Patients. Abstract, Amer. Society Neph., November 14-17, 1992.

J. Hastka(1), J.J. Lasserre(2), A. Schwarzbeck(3), R. Hehlmann(1), and M. Strauch (2).: Zinc Protoporphyrin as an Alternative to Ferritin in the Management of the Iron Substitution of rHu-EPO Treated Dialysis Patients. Nieren-und Hochdruckkrankheiten, (Kidney and Hypertension Iron Metabolism Disorders), Vol. 20, pp. 697-700, No. 12, 1991. (1) III Medical Clinic (Director: Prof. Dr. R. Hehlmann) and (2) Nephrology Clinic (Director: Prof. Dr. M. Strauch), Mannheim School of Clinical Medicine of the University of Heidelberg, (3) Mannheim-Kafertal Dialysis Center.

Lynn, R.I., Dressler, R., Levine, S.D.: Low Initial Transferrin Saturation Does Not Predict a Poor Response to Erythropoietin in Hemodialysis and May Not Increase with Intravenous Iron Dextran. Abstract, Amer. Society Neph., December 2-5, 1990.

Van Wyck, D.B.: Iron Deficiency in Patients with Dialysis Associated Anemia During Erythropoietin Replacement Therapy: Strategies for Assessment and Management. Seminars in Nephrology, 9:1, Suppl. 2, 21-24, 1989.

Esbach, J.W., Egrie, J.C., Downing M.R., et al.: Correction of Anemia of End-Stage Renal Disease with Recombinant Human Erythropoietin: Results of a Combined Phase I and II Clinical Trial. New England Jnl. Med., 316 (2): 73-78, 1987.

Magana, L., Dhar, S., Smith, E.C., Martinez, C.: Iron Absorption and Utilization in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Oral and Intravenous Routes. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 51:180-183, 1984.

Moreb, J., Popovtzer, M.M., Friedlander, M.M., Konijn, A.M., Hershko, C.: Evaluation of Iron Status in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: Relative Usefulness of Bone Marrow Hemosiderin, Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, Mean Corpuscular Volume, and Red Cell Protoporphyrin. Nephron, 35: 196-200, 1983.

Bell, J.D., Kincaid, W.R., Morgan, R.G., Bunce, H., Alperin, J.B., Sarles, H.E., Remmens, A.R.: Serum Ferritin Assay and Bone-Marrow Iron Stores in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis. Kidney Intl., 17: 237-241, 1980.

Lamola, A.A. Eisinger, J., Blumberg, W.E.: Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin/Heme Ratio by Hematofluorometry. Clin. Chemistry, 26: 677-678, 1980.

Labbe, R.F., Finch, C.A., Smith, N.J., Doan, R.N., Sood, S.K., Madan, N.: Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin/Heme Ratio in the Assessment of Iron Status. Clin. Chem., 25: 87-92, 1979.
Halliday, J.W., Powell, L.W.: Serum Ferritin and Isoferritins in Clinical Medicine.
Prog. Hemat., 11: 229-266, 1979.

Esbach, J.W., Cook, J.D., Scribner, B.H., et al.: Iron Balance in Hemodialysis Patients.
Ann. Intern. Med., 87:710-713, 1977.

Lead Poisoning

Staudinger, K.C., M.D., MPH., Roth, V.S., MD, MPH: Occupational Lead Poisioning, May 2000.

Young-Man R, Kangyoon K. and Hyunwook, K.:Zinc Protoporphyin IX Concentrations between Normal Adults and the Lead-Exposed Workers Measured by HPLC, Spectrofluorometer, and Hematofluorometer, August 2000.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Code of Federal Regulations. 29 CFR Part 1910 – Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Part 1910.1025. US GPO, 104-135, July, 2000.

Braverman, E., M.D. and Smayda, R.J.: Chronic Lead Poisioning as a Cause of Bulemia: Hair Analysis and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) as Diagnostic Aid, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995.

Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control – October, 1991. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control.

Guidelines for the Detection and Management of Lead Poisoning. The Bureau of Lead Poisoning Control (BLPC), Department of Health, New York City, Revised October 12, 1988.
Boeckx, Roger L.: Lead Poisoning in Children. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 58, No. 2, February, 1986.

Grandjean, P. and Lintrup, J.: Erythrocyte-Zn-Protoporphyrin as an Indicator of Lead Exposure. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 38, 669-675, 1978.

Fischbein, A., Eisinger, J. and Blumberg, W.E.: ZincProtoporphyrin Determination: A Rapid Screening Test for the Detection of Lead Poisoning. The Mount Sinai Jnl. of Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-June, 294-299, 1976.

Lamola, A.A., Joselow, M. and Yamane, T.: Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP): A Simple, Sensitive, Fluorometric Screening Test for Lead Poisoning. Clin. Chem., 21, 93, 1975.

Iron Metabolism Disorders   Back to ZPP 206m